Total-Variation — Fast Gradient Flow and Relations to Koopman Theory

Ido Cohen et al.

The space-discrete Total Variation (TV) flow is analyzed using several mode decomposition techniques. In the one-dimensional case, we provide analytic formulations to Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) and to Koopman Mode Decomposition (KMD) of the TV-flow and compare the obtained modes to TV spectral decomposition. We propose a computationally efficient algorithm to evolve the one-dimensional TV-flow. A significant speedup by three orders of magnitude is obtained, compared to iterative minimizations. A common theme, for both mode analysis and fast algorithm, is the significance of phase transitions during the flow, in which the subgradient changes. We explain why applying DMD directly on TV-flow measurements cannot model the flow or extract modes well. We formulate a more general method for mode decomposition that coincides with the modes of KMD. This method is based on the linear decay profile, typical to TV-flow. These concepts are demonstrated through experiments, where additional extensions to the two-dimensional case are given.